World coal and gas consumption rose 5.4% and 2.2% respectively in 2011
02 January 2013
Although oil remains the world's leading energy source, coal and natural gas continue to grow in significance, according to new research conducted by the Worldwatch Institute (www.worldwatch.org). Global consumption of coal increased 5.4% in 2011, to 3.72 billion tons of oil equivalent, while natural gas use grew 2.2%, to 2.91 billion tons of oil equivalent.
Coal's share in the global primary energy mix reached 28% in 2011, its highest point since the International Energy Agency began keeping statistics in 1971
The bulk of coal use is for power generation, with smaller amounts being used in steelmaking. Spurred mainly by rising demand in China and India, coal's share in the global primary energy mix reached 28% in 2011, its highest point since the International Energy Agency began keeping statistics in 1971.
Although the United States remains one of the world's largest coal users, just over 70% of global demand in 2011 was in countries outside of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including China and India. Consumption in non-OECD countries grew 8% in 2011 to 2.63 billion tons of oil equivalent.
China alone accounted for nearly half of all coal use in 2011. India is the second largest contributor to rising coal demand and is the world's third largest coal consumer, after surpassing the European Union in 2009. The United States remains the second largest coal user, even though US demand decreased by around 5% in 2011 and continued to fall in 2012 due to the shale gas boom and the abundance of cheap natural gas. Even with declining demand, the United States still accounts for 45% of coal demand within the OECD.
Coal production, like consumption, is concentrated mainly in China. But the United States holds the largest proven coal reserves, with 28% of the global total, followed by Russia at 18%, China at 13%, Australia at 9%, and India at 7%. Together, these five countries accounted for three-quarters of proven coal reserves as well as three-quarters of global coal production in 2011.
In the case of natural gas, global consumption grew 2.2% to reach 2.91 billion tons of oil equivalent in 2011. Usage grew in all regions except the European Union, which experienced a 9.9% decline in natural gas consumption - the largest on record and due mainly to a struggling economy and high natural gas prices.
Natural gas accounted for nearly 23.7% of global primary energy consumption in 2011, down slightly from 23.8% in 2010. Consumption increased most significantly in East Asia, led by China (21.5%) and Japan (11.6%).
Natural gas production increased at a higher rate than consumption----3.1%----reaching 2.96 billion tons of oil equivalent in 2011. The United States and Russia accounted for nearly 40% of the world's output in 2011, contributing 20% and 18.5%, respectively, followed by Canada, Iran, and Qatar at 4-5% each.
Continued strong growth in the global coal and natural gas sectors depends on numerous factors. Demand for coal could stagnate with the introduction of new technologies in the power sector, or with the adoption of policies to reduce the environmental and health impacts of coal combustion. Increasing global concern about greenhouse gas emissions and climate change could lead to a greater transition from coal to natural gas. Other factors that could change the equation include rising environmental and other concerns about hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking") and the possibility that cheap natural gas might undermine growth in renewable energy.